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Create a React dapp with global state

This tutorial walks you through integrating a React dapp with MetaMask. The dapp has multiple components, so requires managing global state. You'll use the Vite build tool with React and TypeScript to create the dapp.


We recommend first creating a React dapp with local state. This tutorial is a follow-up to that tutorial.

The previous tutorial walks you through creating a dapp that connects to MetaMask and handles account, balance, and network changes with a single component. In real world use cases, a dapp might need to respond to state changes in different components.

In this tutorial, you'll move that state and its relevant functions into React context, creating a global state so other components and UI can affect it and get MetaMask wallet updates.

This tutorial also provides a few best practices for a clean code base, since you'll have multiple components and a slightly more complex file structure.

Project source code

You can see the source code for the starting point and final state of this dapp.



1. Set up the project

Clone the react-dapp-tutorial GitHub repository on GitHub by running the following command:

git clone

Checkout the global-state-start branch:

cd react-dapp-tutorial && git checkout global-state-start

Install the node module dependencies:

npm install

Open the project in a text editor.


If you use VS Code, you can run the command code . to open the project.

This is a working React dapp, but it's wiped out the code from the previous tutorial's App.tsx file.

Run the dapp using the command npx vite. The starting point looks like the following:

There are three components, each with static text: navigation (with a logo area and connect button), display (main content area), and footer. You'll use the footer to show any MetaMask errors.

Before you start, comment out or remove the border CSS selector, as it's only used as a visual aid. Remove the following line from each component style sheet:

Display.module.css | MetaMaskError.module.css | Navigation.module.css
// border: 1px solid rgb(...);


This dapp has Vite's typical App.css and index.css files removed, and uses a modular approach to CSS.

In the /src directory, contains styles for the entire dapp (not specific to a single component), and styles you might want to reuse (such as buttons).

In the /src directory, App.module.css contains styles specific to App.tsx, your dapp's container component. It uses the appContainer class, which sets up a Flexbox to define the display type (flex) and the flex-direction (column).

Using Flexbox here ensures that any child divs are laid out in a single-column layout (vertically).

Finally, the /src/components directory has subdirectories for Display, Navigation, and MetaMaskError. Each subdirectory contains a corresponding component file and CSS file. Each component is a flex-items within a flex-container, stacked in a vertical column with the navigation and footer (MetaMaskError) being of fixed height and the middle component (Display) taking up the remaining vertical space.

Optional: Linting with ESLint

This dapp uses a standard ESLint configuration to keep the code consistent. There are two ways to use ESLint:

  1. Run npm run lint or npm run lint:fix from the command line. The former displays all the linting errors, and the latter updates your code to fix linting errors where possible.

  2. Set up your IDE to show linting errors and automatically fix them on save. For example, in VS Code, you can create or update the file at .vscode/settings.json in the root of the project with the following settings:

    "eslint.format.enable": true,
    "eslint.packageManager": "npm",
    "editor.codeActionsOnSave": {
    "source.fixAll.eslint": true
    "eslint.codeActionsOnSave.mode": "all"

Project structure

The following is a tree representation of the dapp's /src directory:

├── src
│ ├── assets
│ ├── components
│ │ └── Display
│ │ | └── index.tsx
│ │ | └── Display.module.css
│ │ | └── Display.tsx
│ │ ├── MetaMaskError
│ │ | └── index.tsx
│ │ | └── MetaMaskError.module.css
│ │ | └── MetaMaskError.tsx
│ │ ├─── Navigation
│ │ | └── index.tsx
│ │ | └── Navigation.module.css
│ │ | └── Navigation.tsx
│ ├── hooks
│ │ ├── useMetaMask.tsx
│ ├── utils
│ │ └── index.tsx
├── App.module.css
├── App.tsx
├── main.tsx
├── vite-env.d.ts

Instead of a single component, there's a src/components directory with UI and functionality distributed into multiple components. You'll modify the dapp's state in this directory and make it available to the rest of the dapp using a context provider. This provider will sit in the src/App.tsx file and wrap the three child components.

The child components will have access to the global state and the functions that modify the global state. This ensures that any change to the wallet (address, balance, and chainId), or the global state's properties and functions (hasProvider, error, errorMessage, and isConnecting) will be accessible by re-rendering those child components.

The following graphic shows how the context provider wraps its child components, providing access to the state modifier functions and the actual state itself. Since React uses a one-way data flow, any change to the data gets re-rendered in those components automatically.

2. Build the context provider

In this step, you'll create a context called MetaMaskContext and a provider component called MetaMaskContextProvider in the /src/hooks/useMetaMask.tsx file.

This provider component will use similar useState and useEffect hooks with some changes from the previous tutorial's local state component to make it more DRY (don't repeat yourself).

It will also have similar updateWallet, connectMetaMask, and clearError functions, all of which do their part to connect to MetaMask or update the MetaMask state.

MetaMaskContext will return a MetaMaskContext.Provider, which takes a value of type MetaMaskContextData, and supplies that to its children.

You'll export a React hook called useMetaMask, which uses your MetaMaskContext.

Update /src/hooks/useMetaMask.tsx with the following:

Read the comments

The following code contains comments describing advanced React patterns and how MetaMask state is managed.

/* eslint-disable @typescript-eslint/no-explicit-any */
import {
} from "react";

import detectEthereumProvider from "@metamask/detect-provider";
import { formatBalance } from "~/utils";

interface WalletState {
accounts: any[];
balance: string;
chainId: string;

interface MetaMaskContextData {
wallet: WalletState;
hasProvider: boolean | null;
error: boolean;
errorMessage: string;
isConnecting: boolean;
connectMetaMask: () => void;
clearError: () => void;

const disconnectedState: WalletState = {
accounts: [],
balance: "",
chainId: "",

const MetaMaskContext = createContext<MetaMaskContextData>(
{} as MetaMaskContextData

export const MetaMaskContextProvider = ({ children }: PropsWithChildren) => {
const [hasProvider, setHasProvider] = useState<boolean | null>(null);

const [isConnecting, setIsConnecting] = useState(false);

const [errorMessage, setErrorMessage] = useState("");
const clearError = () => setErrorMessage("");

const [wallet, setWallet] = useState(disconnectedState);
// useCallback ensures that you don't uselessly recreate the _updateWallet function on every render.
const _updateWallet = useCallback(async (providedAccounts?: any) => {
const accounts =
providedAccounts ||
(await window.ethereum.request({ method: "eth_accounts" }));

if (accounts.length === 0) {
// If there are no accounts, then the user is disconnected.

const balance = formatBalance(
await window.ethereum.request({
method: "eth_getBalance",
params: [accounts[0], "latest"],
const chainId = await window.ethereum.request({
method: "eth_chainId",

setWallet({ accounts, balance, chainId });
}, []);

const updateWalletAndAccounts = useCallback(
() => _updateWallet(),
const updateWallet = useCallback(
(accounts: any) => _updateWallet(accounts),

* This logic checks if MetaMask is installed. If it is, some event handlers are set up to update
* the wallet state when MetaMask changes. The function returned by useEffect is used as a
* "cleanup"; it removes the event handlers whenever the MetaMaskProvider is unmounted.
useEffect(() => {
const getProvider = async () => {
const provider = await detectEthereumProvider({ silent: true });

if (provider) {
window.ethereum.on("accountsChanged", updateWallet);
window.ethereum.on("chainChanged", updateWalletAndAccounts);


return () => {
window.ethereum?.removeListener("accountsChanged", updateWallet);
}, [updateWallet, updateWalletAndAccounts]);

const connectMetaMask = async () => {

try {
const accounts = await window.ethereum.request({
method: "eth_requestAccounts",
} catch (err: any) {

return (
error: !!errorMessage,

export const useMetaMask = () => {
const context = useContext(MetaMaskContext);
if (context === undefined) {
throw new Error(
"useMetaMask must be used within a MetaMaskContextProvider"
return context;

With this context provider in place, you can update /src/App.tsx to include the provider and wrap it around the three components.

Notice the use of ~/utils to import the utility functions.


This dapp is configured to use vite-tsconfig-paths, allowing it to load modules with locations specified by the compilerOptions.paths object in tsconfig.json. The path corresponding to the ./src/* directory is represented by the ~/* symbol. There's also a reference to ./tsconfig.node.json in the reference's array objects that correspond to path.

vite.config.ts imports tsconfigPaths from vite-tsconfig-paths and adds it to the plugins array.

See more information about vite-tsconfig-paths.

3. Wrap components with the context provider

In this step, you'll import the MetaMaskContextProvider in /src/App.tsx and wrap that component around the existing Display, Navigation, and MetaMaskError components.

Update /src/App.tsx to the following:

import "./";
import styles from "./App.module.css";

import { Navigation } from "./components/Navigation";
import { Display } from "./components/Display";
import { MetaMaskError } from "./components/MetaMaskError";
import { MetaMaskContextProvider } from "./hooks/useMetaMask";

export const App = () => {
return (
<div className={styles.appContainer}>
<Navigation />
<Display />
<MetaMaskError />

With App.tsx updated, you can update the Display, Navigation, and MetaMaskError components, each of which will use the useMetaMask hook to display the state or invoke functions that modify state.

4. Connect to MetaMask in the navigation

The Navigation component will connect to MetaMask using conditional rendering to show an Install MetaMask or Connect MetaMask button or, once connected, display your wallet address in a hypertext link that connects to Etherscan.

Update /src/components/Navigation/Navigation.tsx to the following:

import { useMetaMask } from "~/hooks/useMetaMask";
import { formatAddress } from "~/utils";
import styles from "./Navigation.module.css";

export const Navigation = () => {
const { wallet, hasProvider, isConnecting, connectMetaMask } =

return (
<div className={styles.navigation}>
<div className={styles.flexContainer}>
<div className={styles.leftNav}>Vite + React & MetaMask</div>
<div className={styles.rightNav}>
{!hasProvider && (
<a href="" target="_blank">Install MetaMask</a>
{window.ethereum?.isMetaMask &&
wallet.accounts.length < 1 && (
<button disabled={isConnecting} onClick={connectMetaMask}>
Connect MetaMask
{hasProvider && wallet.accounts.length > 0 && (
className="text_link tooltip-bottom"
data-tooltip="Open in Block Explorer"

Notice how useMetaMask de-structures its return value to get the items within MetaMaskContextData:

const { wallet, hasProvider, isConnecting, connectMetaMask } = useMetaMask();

Also, the formatAddress function formats the wallet address for display purposes:


This function doesn't exist in the @utils file yet, so you'll need to add it. Update /src/utils/index.tsx to the following:

export const formatBalance = (rawBalance: string) => {
const balance = (parseInt(rawBalance) / 1000000000000000000).toFixed(2);
return balance;

export const formatChainAsNum = (chainIdHex: string) => {
const chainIdNum = parseInt(chainIdHex);
return chainIdNum;

export const formatAddress = (addr: string) => {
return `${addr.substring(0, 8)}...`;

This should address any build errors in your Navigation component.

Other than using the new styling, the only thing this dapp has done differently than the local-state tutorial is display the user's address formatted inside a link once they're connected. Now that you have a place for connecting and showing the address, you could build out an entire profile component (side quest).

5. Display MetaMask data

In the Display component, you won't call any functions that modify state; you'll read from MetaMaskData, a simple update.

Update /src/components/Display/Display.tsx to the following:

import { useMetaMask } from "~/hooks/useMetaMask";
import { formatChainAsNum } from "~/utils";
import styles from "./Display.module.css";

export const Display = () => {
const { wallet } = useMetaMask();

return (
<div className={styles.display}>
{wallet.accounts.length > 0 && (
<div>Wallet Accounts: {wallet.accounts[0]}</div>
<div>Wallet Balance: {wallet.balance}</div>
<div>Hex ChainId: {wallet.chainId}</div>
<div>Numeric ChainId: {formatChainAsNum(wallet.chainId)}</div>

Notice how useMetaMask de-structures its return value to get only the wallet data:

const { wallet } = useMetaMask();

At this point, you can display account, balance, and chainId in the Display component:

If MetaMask errors or the user rejects a connection, you can display that error in the footer, or MetaMaskError component.

Update /src/components/MetaMaskError/MetaMaskError.tsx to the following:

import { useMetaMask } from "~/hooks/useMetaMask";
import styles from "./MetaMaskError.module.css";

export const MetaMaskError = () => {
const { error, errorMessage, clearError } = useMetaMask();
return (
style={error ? { backgroundColor: "brown" } : {}}
{error && (
<div onClick={clearError}>
<strong>Error:</strong> {errorMessage}

Notice how useMetaMask de-structures its return value to get only the error, errorMessage, and clearError data:

const { error, errorMessage, clearError } = useMetaMask();

When you generate an error by cancelling the connection to MetaMask, this shows up in the footer. The background temporarily turns a dark red color:

In this tutorial's dapp, you can dismiss any MetaMask error displayed in the footer by selecting it. In a real-world dapp, the best UI/UX for error dismissing would be a component that displays in a modal or overlay and provides an obvious dismiss button.


You've successfully converted a single component dapp with local state to a multiple component dapp with global state, using React context and provider. You can modify the dapp's global state using functions and data that, when used anywhere in the dapp, will show up-to-date data associated with your MetaMask wallet.

You can see the source code for the final state of this dapp tutorial.